David’s Charge to Solomon & Ancient Electricity

That’s  cold of Adonijah to try and overpower his own dad to become king. Definitely violates the 5th commandment (Ex 20:12).

How old is Solomon, isn’t he just a kid? 

Culverins were medieval guns.

These were often used by horsemen in a medieval kind of drive-by shooting.

The hand culverin were made of a simple smoothbore tube, closed at one end except for a small hole designed to fire the gunpowder.

The tube was held in place by a wooden piece which could be held under the arm.

The tube was loaded with gunpowder and lead bullets.

The culverin was fired by inserting a lighted cord into the hole.

In the image above, the hand culverin is between two small canons.

“Now the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and he charged Solomon his son, saying,

I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, and shew thyself a man;

And keep the charge of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself:

That the Lord may continue his word which he spake concerning me, saying, If thy children take heed to their way, to walk before me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there shall not fail thee (said he) a man on the throne of Israel” (1 Kgs 2:1-4).

David then reminded Solomon that Joab had killed Abner and Amasa, causing wars.  He also said,

The Calltrop is a weapon made up of two (or more) sharp nails or spines arranged so that one of them always points upward from a stable base (for example, a tetrahedron).

Caltrops serve to slow down the advance of horses, war elephants, and human troops.

It was said to be particularly effective against the soft feet of camels.

“Do therefore according to thy wisdom, and let not his hoar head go down to the grave in peace” (1 Kgs 2:6). 

And for him to be kind to the sons of Barzillai because he had taken care of him when he was running from Absalom.  Also not to kill Shimei or Benjamin for putting a curse on him because he had told God that he wouldn’t. 

But he wanted him to kill Joab (Joab that had once been loyal to King David).  David died and was buried in the city of David.  So David had reigned 40 years in Israel, 7 in Hebron, and 33 in Jerusalem.

“Now the days of David drew nigh that he should die; and he charged Solomon his son, saying,

I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, and shew thyself a man;

And keep the charge of the Lord thy God, to walk in his ways, to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and his judgments, and his testimonies, as it is written in the law of Moses, that thou mayest prosper in all that thou doest, and whithersoever thou turnest thyself:

Boiling Oil
Back in the day, you had to scale the walls of a city or castle before you could rape and pillage.

This led someone to the brilliant idea that you could pour boiling oil on top of the people trying to climb in.

That the Lord may continue his word which he spake concerning me, saying, If thy children take heed to their way, to walk before me in truth with all their heart and with all their soul, there shall not fail thee (said he) a man on the throne of Israel” (1 Kgs 2:13-18).

Bath-sheba then went and told Solomon what Adonijah wanted.  And he said

Arbalest
Everybody knows that crossbows are powerful weaponse, but what about it’s big brother?

The Arbalest was a larger version and it had a steel prod (“bow”).

Because of the greater tensile strength of steel, it had a greater force than the crossbow.

The strongest windlass-pulled Arbalests could have up to 22 kN (5000 lbf) strength and be accurate up to 500m.

A skilled Arbalestier (arblaster) could shoot two bolts per minute.

Arbalests were sometimes considered inhumane or unfair weapons, since an inexperienced crossbowman could use one to kill a knight who had a lifetime of training.

“And king Solomon answered and said unto his mother, And why dost thou ask Abishag the Shunammite for Adonijah? ask for him the kingdom also; for he is mine elder brother; even for him, and for Abiathar the priest, and for Joab the son of Zeruiah.

Then king Solomon sware by the Lord, saying, God do so to me, and more also, if Adonijah have not spoken this word against his own life.

Now therefore, as the Lord liveth, which hath established me, and set me on the throne of David my father, and who hath made me an house, as he promised, Adonijah shall be put to death this day.

And king Solomon sent by the hand of Benaiah the son of Jehoiada; and he fell upon him that he died.

And unto Abiathar the priest said the king, Get thee to Anathoth, unto thine own fields; for thou art worthy of death: but I will not at this time put thee to death, because thou barest the ark of the Lord God before David my father, and because thou hast been afflicted in all wherein my father was afflicted” (1 Kgs 2:22-26).

“Then tidings came to Joab: for Joab had turned after Adonijah, though he turned not after Absalom. And Joab fled unto the tabernacle of the LORD, and caught hold on the horns of the altar. 

The Hunga Munga is an iron fighting tool named by the African tribes south of Lake Tchad; also called “danisco” by the Marghi, “goleyo” by the Musgu, and “njiga” by the Bagirmi.

It is handheld weapon and has a metal pointed blade with a curved back section and separate spike near the handle.

The weapon can be used in hand to hand combat (Melee) although it is normally thrown with a spinning action.

And it was told king Solomon, then Solomon sent Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, saying, Go, fall upon him” (1 Kgs 2:28-29).

Benaiah then told Solomon that Jaob would leave the tabernacle, that he would rather die there, so Solomon told him to go ahead and then bury him in his own house in the wilderness.

Solomon then put Beaiah in the room over the host and Zadok the priest in the room of Abiathar.  He then told Shimei to build himself a house in Jerusalem and to never leave, but if he does step out of the city he’ll be killed.

“Three years later two of Shimei’s servants ran away to Achish so Shimei went there and brought them back.  When Solomon found out he had Shimei brought to him and he said, Thou knowest all the wickedness which thine heart is privy to, that thou didst to David my father: therefore the LORD shall return thy wickedness upon thine own head” (1 Kgs 2:44). 

And he had Benaiah kill Shimei.

The Morning Star (also sometimes called the goedendag or Holy Water sprinkler) is a term used for a variety of club-like weapons with one or more sharp spikes sticking out of it.

It would normally have one big spike poking out of the top with a bunch of smaller ones around the sides.

These are often thought of as peasant weapons, but there were also very high quality ones made for the rich guys.

Ancient Electricity

The proposal is simple.  Some historians and independent researchers believe that ancient civilizations were much more technologically advanced than is commonly accepted. 

Specifically, they believe that some sectors of society had access to electricity and used it for both practical and religious purposes.

Here are ten contenders for the existence of ancient electricity.  The electric catfish and the cat fur and amber effect are well recorded and not in dispute. 

The Coso Artifact is almost certainly the misinterpretation of evidence.  The rest are open to debate.

Cat Fur and Amber Generator

There can be no doubt that ancient civilizations were aware of static electricity even if they may not have fully understood it.

The Trebuchet (a very high powered catapult) could catapult a rotting or diseased animal over the ramparts – or for truly fast results, you could fling over a few beehives.

Dead horses were a popular weapon in this form of biological warfare, though anything filled with disease would do the trick.

The counterweight Trebuchet appeared in both Christian and Muslim lands around the Mediterranean in the twelfth century.

It could fling three-hundred-pound (140 kg) projectiles at high speeds into enemy fortifications.

They also appreciated the godlike power of lightning and must have been curious to observe this effect replicated in miniature when the fur of a cat was rubbed against certain materials in a darkened room. 

The effects of static electricity were first recorded by a Greek philosopher, Thales of Miletus, who lived between 624 B.C. and 546 B.C. 

He is said to have experimented with amber, which the Greeks referred to as Elektron, and cat fur to create an electrical discharge as well as magnetism.

Ancient Electricity.
By spinning the disks in opposite directions a static electrical charge could be transferred to the gold foil strips to create visible sparks.

From this observation a simple machine consisting of two spinning disks, one covered with leopard fur and one coated with glass or amber could be connected to gold axles and foil strips which would produce an electrical charge capable of generating sparks several inches in length.        

 

 

 

 

Electric Eelo or Electrophorus Electricus the Knife Fish
The Knife Fish of South America is capable of delivering between 500 – 600 volts of electricity.

The Nile (Electric) Catfish, Malapterurus Electricus, is capable of delivering approximately 350 volts.

Electric Eels – Shock Therapy

Although it looks like an eel, Electrophorus Electricus is actually a Knife Fish that is able to generate and deliver significant electric shocks of up to 600 volts.

The ancient Egyptians referred to an electric catfish, Malapterurus Electricus, as the “Thunderer of the Nile” which indicates that they had already made the connection to storm-related atmospheric discharges – lightning.

According to various sources the Greeks and Romans were familiar with these creatures and may well have bred them in captivity.

Historic records show that they were certainly farming many other types of exotic fish both for food and for amusement.

Scribonus Largus, a physician at the court of the Roman Emperor Claudius (c.47A.D.), is reported to have written that these “torpedo fish” could be used to treat a wide variety of ailments.

They were used to numb the feet of gout sufferers as well as those suffering from persistent headaches.

If this is true then this is the first recorded use of shock therapy.

As recently as 2009 doctors in Boston have been successfully experimenting with electric currents to block migraines.

Example of a Baghdad Battery
Discovered in the archives of the National Museum of Iraq in 1938.

Believed to have been originally excavated in 1936 in the village of Khuyut Rabbou’a.

Capable of generating between 0.75 and 1.1 volts.

The Baghdad Battery

In 1938 the Director of the National Museum of Iraq, Wilhelm König, discovered a number of curious terracotta pots in the archives. 

Each one was approximately 13 cm in height with a capped 3.3 cm opening at the top. 

Each pot contained an open-ended copper cylinder and inside this was a small iron rod.

These artifacts strongly resembled simple galvanic batteries and in 1940 König published a scientific paper proposing that these objects may well have been used to generate electrical current which could have been used for electroplating objects with either gold or silver.

Mainstream archaeologists continue to doubt this theory even though reproductions using lemon juice as an electrolyte have been proven to work and no other sensible explanation exists for the iron and copper contents. 

The pots are likely to have been created during the Sassanid Period (224 A.D. – 640 A.D.). The debate continues.       

The Lighthouse of Pharos/Alexandria
The lighthouse survived from 247 B.C. to 1303 A.D. when it was severely damaged in an earthquake.

By 1408 it was simply a pile of rubble which was then used to build a medieval fortress by Al-Ashraf Sayf al-Din Qa’it Bay, the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, which remains standing today.

It is possible to still visit Qaitbay Castle.

The Lighthouse of Pharos

Considered to be one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, construction of the 130m tall Pharos Lighthouse probably began around 280 B.C. on a small island just off the coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

Originally commissioned by the Macedonian general, Ptolemy Soter who became ruler of Egypt after the death of Alexander the Great, it was completed during the reign of his son Ptolemy Philadelphos.

Today the island of Pharos has become part of the mainland and shields a natural harbor.

The building was erected to house a brilliant light to assist ships to find the port at night.

Historic reports claim that the light could be seen nearly thirty miles out to sea and that it housed a beam so bright that could blind sailors and burn enemy ships.

This has given rise to the theory that only an electrical arc lamp and a huge concave mirror could have created this effect.

Proponents of this theory admit that the source of the power is a mystery but that an electric light is the only possible explanation for the extraordinary intensity of the lamp.

 

 

The Dendera Lights
The picture above is not the best representation but is the only one available on Wikimedia Commons.

From the point of view of the proponents of the “lights” theory the beam can be seen emerging from the lotus flower socket.

A cable appears to run from the battery via the isolator to the lamp.

Under the light are people engaged in activities made possible by the illumination.

The snake is often referred to as a lamp filament but, if the lights are real, is more likely to represent the flickering of the arc light.

There are other pictures on the internet that are even more suggestive and it is worth reviewing them if you are interested in this subject. Real or imagined – you decide?

The Dendera Lights

Within the Temple of Hathor, which is part of the Dendera (Tentyra) Temple Complex in Egypt, are a series of carvings that many people believe depict the sophisticated use of electricity to generate light.

Items identified are as follows: an arc light lamp (horizontal) several upright lamps, lamp socket, arc light flicker (snake) electric cables, an isolator and even a large upright battery. 

If historians and archaeologists believed that the Egyptians from this period used electricity then this would probably be considered a classic example. 

A further point that is often overlooked is that Hathor was a goddess who is usually shown with a sun disk suspended between two horns exactly like the reflecting mirror of an arc-lamp – even the dimensions are optimal.

Although the equipment in the images may seem obvious it should also be noted that many historians, archaeologists and Egyptologists strongly deny that the images are anything more than the representation of a fertility rite based on Egyptian mythology.

Proponents of the “lights” theory are often dismissed as fringe scientists while mainstream Egyptologists are often accused of hiding behind conveniently concocted myths and retentive thinking. Both groups seem certain in their beliefs.         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Abydos Machines
Top Left: Helicopter, Top Right: Hovercraft

Centre Right – High: Airship/Dirigible

Centre Right – Low: Satellite

Bottom Right: Spaceship/Jet Fighter

The Abydos Machines

Roughly 450 kilometers south of Cairo is the ancient city-complex of Abydos.  It is widely considered to be one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt although for some quite differing reasons.

Mainstream Egyptologists recognize it as the site of the Osiris and Isis cult while proponents of ancient electricity believe it holds definite proof that ancient civilizations were significantly more advanced than historians will acknowledge. 

The reason for this is that within the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Seti I there are a series of carvings that clearly depict modern aircraft, particularly a helicopter and dirigible.

Mainstream archaeologists claim that they are merely a coincidence caused by over-carving while proponents of ancient technology state that this is actually misleading and that attempts to recreate the over-carving effect have been less than conclusive. 

In addition, they point out that the coincidence required to produce these images is staggeringly unlikely.

Example of a Coso Artifact
(Probably a case of mistaken identification)

Named after the Coso Mountain Range where it was found above the Owens Dry Lake on the edge of Death Valley.

X-rays of the Coso artefact revealed additional pieces that the Spark Plug Collectors of America identified as parts of a 1920’s spark plug or something similar.

The Coso Artifact

The area around the town of Olancha in California, America, is popular destination for “rock hunters” and attracts both professional and amateur geologists. 

On Monday the 13th February 1961 three geode collectors, Wallace Lane, Mike Mikesell and Virginia Maxey discovered an interesting specimen which Mike Mikesell took home and cut in half with a diamond edged saw. 

Inside the specimen he discovered what appeared to be an off-white ceramic cylinder with a small metal core running through the center – in short, a sparkplug.

According to Ms. Maxey the specimen was examined by a professional geologist who estimated that the casing was at least 500,000 years old.  The identity of the geologist has never been revealed.

The discovery caused significant controversy with some experts claiming that the rock was nothing more than a “concretion” of rust and localized fossils.  

Perhaps because of the controversy the finders refused to further display or discuss the artefact after 1969. 

The location of the artifact is currently unknown as are the people who found it although it is believed that Lane passed away in 2008.             

 

 

The Light of the Temple Venus/Isis
(The quotation from St. Augustine’s book

The City of God, Book 21, Chapter 6)

“…that there was, or is, a temple of Venus in which a candelabrum set in the open air holds a lamp, which burns so strongly that no storm or rain extinguishes it, and which is therefore called, like the stone mentioned above, the asbestos or inextinguishable lamp.”

Temple Light of Isis/Venus

Aurelius Augustine was born in North Africa in 354 A.D. and spent much of his early life dedicated to passionate pursuits, philosophy and academic studies. 

At the age of 32 he became a Christian and after some time in Rome he journeyed to  Hippo Regius (near modern day Annaba) in Tunisia where he was persuaded to become first a priest and later Bishop of the town.

He remained an academic at heart and was one of the most prolific writers of his time.

In his work, City of God, (book 11 chapter 6) he describes a temple in Egypt dedicated to Venus (Isis) in which there is a lamp that requires an asbestos base  and  is completely unaffected by the weather.

The correct translation is under the picture. It’s worth pointing out that some websites misquote this passage to emphasize the argument while others suggest that Augustine himself visited the temple. 

In fact, Augustine was referring to books written by earlier travelers. 

However, the story is intriguing and was considered relevant enough to be selected as an example by the Bishop. St. Augustine suggested that the lamp might have been the work of corrupted men or even a resident demon.

 

 

 

The Ark of the Covenant
Said to have extraordinary powers. May have been and arc lamp. Featured in Episode 29 of Mythbusters, a Discovery Channel program first broadcast on the 23rd March 2005.

The Ark of the Covenant has been lost for many centuries and may have been removed from the Temple of Solomon during the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem in 587 B.C.

Arc of the Covenant

According to the Old Testament, which records the history of the Abrahamic religions, God summoned Moses to Mount Sinai (Horeb) and gave him the Ten Commandments inscribed on two tablets of stone. 

This list of divine laws specified the way in which the people were to live their lives. 

Five of these laws form the basis of all modern legal systems. 

To store the stone tablets the people of Moses built a chest according to specific instructions provided to them by God. 

This was to be the Ark of the Covenant and since its construction there have been countless references to its “power” such as its ability to part waters, to destroy buildings such as the walls of Jericho and to emit beams of light sometimes referred to as the power of God. 

Based on descriptions found in the Old Testament a number of researchers now believe that the wings of the cherub may have acted like an arc lamp or as two electrical charged poles that could induce a sense of the divine. 

This proposal was recently featured on the Discovery Channel’s Myth Busters program and found plausible.        

 

Golden Objects from Sumeria
It is fair to point out that there are techniques that can mimic electroplating.

The first is electro-deposition which is possible without an electric current and the Tumbaga process that involves the production of a seemingly pure gold object even though it has a high percentage of copper.

To achieve this the surface copper is oxidized and dissolved leaving only a gold coating which is polished into a plated surface.

Electroplated Artifacts

Over the centuries a number of artefacts ranging from coins to small religious statues have been discovered with very thin coatings of gold or silver that is typical of modern electroplating techniques.

In 1938 Wilhelm König, the Director of the National Museum of Iraq, discovered a series of small objects that strongly suggested the use of electroplating using electrical current rather than the less effective electrochemical process. 

Several small vases dating from 2,500 B.C. appeared to have been electroplated and were kept at the Baghdad museum. 

In 1851 archaeologist August Mariette claimed to have found electroplated objects at a dig near the Sphinx in Egypt.

In 2006 Stefano Natali and Giuseppe Giovannelli of the University of Rome discovered a coin that had been deliberated plated with silver around 250 B.C. to create a forgery.

A number of pre-Columbian golden artifacts show traces of plated surfaces.

There are undoubtedly many more items in the collections of the great museums that may well turn out to have been electroplated rather than solid gold or silver items. 

Human history is a vast subject.  It took Edward Gibbon 17 years to research and write his famous work, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 

It was published in six volumes and contains more than 1.5 million words.  Naturally he wasn’t impressed when critics believed his views were distorted by his possible paganism.

Conclusion 

In general, history is a factual subject that can be fixed in place to create solid foundations upon which to build a picture of times gone by. 

However, if something doesn’t fit the existing jigsaw, one that has taken centuries to establish, then it is often ignored.

What if someone discovered that the Battle of Hastings had actually taken place in 1067 instead of 1066?

What if Benjamin Franklin turned out to be a British spy and documents surfaced to prove that George Washington was actually a Royalist supporter? 

Beliefs and ideologies are based on perceptions of history and if those perceptions are wrong then maybe the ideologies are too. 

It’s because of this that historians from every culture are very reluctant to engage with ideas that might turn established history upside down.  Ancient Electricity is one such subject.

 The Believers 

Believers cite a growing list of evidence that they claim should be reviewed with an open mind – something they claim is missing in formal academic circles.

The Antikythera Mechanism is an ancient analog computer designed to predict astronomical positions and eclipses.

It was recovered in 1900–01 from the Antikythera wreck, a shipwreck off the Greek island of Antikythera.

The computer’s construction has been attributed to the Greeks and dated to the early 1st century B.C.

Technological artifacts approaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks began to be built in Western Europe.

Unfortunately, real discoveries such as the Antikythera mechanism can get lost in enthusiastic theorizing that is unrestricted by peer group evaluation and original research.

The Sceptics

Traditional historians and archaeologists refute the evidence as misinterpretation and a desire to see things that simply aren’t there. 

They quite often use disparaging terms such as “pseudo-science” and “fringe elements” which isn’t helpful to anyone.   They also tend to put their efforts into smug debunking rather than re-evaluation.

Was Ancient Man smarter than us?

Remember, everything is possible with God (Matt 19:26).