Psalm 140 – Jehovah, the Fountain of Help for the Just

To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.

1 Deliver me, O LORD, from the evil man: preserve me from the violent man;

2 Which imagine mischiefs in their heart; continually are they gathered together for war.

3 They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent; adders’ poison is under their lips. Selah.

4 Keep me, O LORD, from the hands of the wicked; preserve me from the violent man; who have purposed to overthrow my goings.

5 The proud have hid a snare for me, and cords; they have spread a net by the wayside; they have set gins for me. Selah.

6 I said unto the LORD, Thou art my God: hear the voice of my supplications, O LORD.

7 O GOD the Lord, the strength of my salvation, thou hast covered my head in the day of battle.

8 Grant not, O LORD, the desires of the wicked: further not his wicked device; lest they exalt themselves. Selah.

9As for the head of those that compass me about, let the mischief of their own lips cover them.

10 Let burning coals fall upon them: let them be cast into the fire; into deep pits, that they rise not up again.

11 Let not an evil speaker be established in the earth: evil shall hunt the violent man to overthrow him.

12 I know that the LORD will maintain the cause of the afflicted, and the right of the poor.

13 Surely the righteous shall give thanks unto thy name: the upright shall dwell in thy presence.

A prayer against sinful words and deceitful flatterers.  Keeping ourselves in the presence of the Lord while under the attack of the enemy.

Psalm 139 – The Heart-Searching Presence of God & Sheol, Hades, Gehenna, The Abyss, and Tartarus: Images of Hell

To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David.

Hades, otherwise known as the underworld, was the abode of the dead or, more accurately, of departed souls.

It is necessary to distinguish between Hades the locality and Hades the god of the Underworld, “Death”.

Hades comes from a Greek root meaning “unseen,” “hidden,” or “unknown.”

Relevant comparisons can be found in the Egyptian religion, where the equivalent of Hades is Amenti, meaning “hidden place” or “place of the hidden god,” and in the roots of the word “hell”, which had the sense of “hiding’ or “concealing.”

In mythology, Hades was located under the earth; hence the journey to Hades involved a descent.

Hades in ancient traditions was not just a place where sinful souls were tortured.

The Greeks also saw it as a gateway to a heaven-like existence.

One road in Hades led to Tartaros, where imaginative punishments were administered, the other, the right hand road, led to the Elysian Fields.

As such, Hades was a midway station, and not equal to the Christian concept of Hell.

A descent into the Underworld, the abode of the deceased, is therefore “emotionally neutral” – and this is largely how Pitt plays death.

1 O LORD, thou hast searched me, and known me.

Amulet from Mesopotamia.
The back of the object shows the body of the male demon Pazuzu, his head peering over the top at the front.

At the bottom left, Pazuzu drives Lamashtu back to the Underworld, to which she is lured by offerings.

She is lured by offerings.

She is standing on her donkey, and both are in her boat on the river to the Underworld.

She holds snakes and suckles the usual animals.

2 Thou knowest my downsitting and mine uprising, thou understandest my thought afar off.

3 Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and art acquainted with all my ways.

4 For there is not a word in my tongue, but, lo, O LORD, thou knowest it altogether.

5 Thou hast beset me behind and before, and laid thine hand upon me.

Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, I cannot attain unto it.

7 Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence?

8 If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there: if I make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there.

9If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea;

10 Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me.

11 If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me; even the night shall be light about me.

12 Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee; but the night shineth as the day: the darkness and the light are both alike to thee.

13 For thou hast possessed my reins: thou hast covered me in my mother’s womb.

14 I will praise thee; for I am fearfully and wonderfully made: marvelous are thy works; and that my soul knoweth right well.

15 My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth.

16 Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being unperfect; and in thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them.

Today the Hinnom Valley is covered with green grass.
This photo was taken on the west side of the Mount of Olives near the southwest corner of the Old City walls.

An Arab family is resting in the shade of a tree while their children play in the Hinnom Valley.

The Hinnom Valley is a deep, narrow ravine located in Jerusalem, running south from the Jaffa Gate on the west side of the Old City, then eastward along the south side of Mount Zion until it meets the Kidron Valley which separates the Temple Mount from the Mount of Olives on the east side of the city.

It is named from a certain “son of Hinnom” who apparently owned or had some significant association with the valley at a time prior to Josh 15:8.

The Valley of Hinnom had a very horrendous history in ancient times.

It was used as a place where the pagan worshipers did all sorts of vile and wicked things – including burning children alive as sacrifices to the idols Moloch and Baal.

One section of the valley was called Tophet, or the “fire-stove,” where the children were slaughtered (2 Kgs 23:10).

It was a place of tremendous evil for many years.

After their return from the Babylonian exile the Jews turned the Hinnom Valley into the city dump where garbage and anything deemed unclean (including the bodies of executed criminals) was incinerated.

For that purpose, a fire was kept constantly burning there.

Even though it was no longer used for evil worship, with all the filth and thick smoke it remained a very dark and dreary place.

The Hebrew name Hinnom when translated into Greek is Gahanna, from which the word and concept of hell originated.

By the time of Jesus Christ, the deep, constantly-burning Valley of Hinnom was also known as the Valley of Gehenna, or Hell, and had taken on a popular image as the place “down there” where the wicked would eventually be cast into the flames for destruction.

17 How precious also are thy thoughts unto me, O God! how great is the sum of them!

18 If I should count them, they are more in number than the sand: when I awake, I am still with thee.

19 Surely thou wilt slay the wicked, O God: depart from me therefore, ye bloody men.

20 For they speak against thee wickedly, and thine enemies take thy name in vain.

21 Do not I hate them, O LORD, that hate thee? and am not I grieved with those that rise up against thee?

22 I hate them with perfect hatred: I count them mine enemies.

23 Search me, O God, and know my heart: try me, and know my thoughts:

24 And see if there be any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.

A prayer to be delivered from the wicked.  Experiencing what it is like to live under the Lord’s light and searching.

Sheol, Hades, Gehenna, The Abyss,
and Tartarus: Images of Hell
 

The Psalmist declared to God: “If I make my bed in the depths of hell, thou art there” (139:8). 

The Hebrew word for “depths” is Sheol, and many translations simply leave the word untranslated.  Sheol in the Old Testament view was essentially the place beneath the earth to which the dead were thought to go. Thus, Sheol can refer to both the literal grave and to the netherworld.

As the netherworld, it is similar to the Greek Hades, the dark and sorrowful domain of the dead (as seen in Homer’s Odyssey, book 11).  In fact, it is usually translated as “Hades” in the Septuagint.

In a single verse, however, Sheol can refer both to the gated kingdom of the netherworld and to the dusty grave (Job 17:16).  In Greek mythology Hades was also a god, unlike what we see in the Hebrew Bible.

Assyrian demon Pazuzu, first millennium B.C.
In Assyrian and Babylonian mythology, Pazuzu (sometimes Fazuzu or Pazuza) was the king of the demons of the wind, and son of the god Hanbi.

He also represented the southwestern wind, the bearer of storms and drought.

Iconography

Pazuzu is often depicted as a combination of diverse animal and human parts.

He has the body of a man, the head of a lion or dog, eagle-like taloned feet, two pairs of wings, a scorpion’s tail, and a serpentine penis.

He is often depicted with his right hand pointing upward and left hand pointing down.

Mythology

Pazuzu is the demon of the southwest wind known for bringing famine during dry seasons, and locusts during rainy seasons.

Pazuzu was said to be invoked in amulets, which combat the powers of his rival, the malicious goddess Lamashtu, who was believed to cause harm to mother and child during childbirth.

Although Pazuzu is, himself, an evil spirit, he drives away other evil spirits, therefore protecting humans against plagues and misfortunes.

On the other hand, the Bible sometimes portrays Sheol as a beast with gaping jaws (Is 5:15; 14:9; Hab 2:5; NIV in each case, “the grave”).

Visions of Sheol as a fearsome site sometimes appear in prophetic judgments and warnings.  Ezekiel 31-32 includes elaborate depictions of the hordes now confined to Sheol, and this vision serve as a warning to Egypt.

Similarly, in Lk 16:19-31, Jesus recounted the parable of the rich man in Hades (NIV “hell”) as a warning to his audience to repent.

The range of meanings the word Sheol carries explains what seem to be inconsistencies in the text.  On the one hand, no one praises God in Sheol (Ps 6:5); one who is in the grave cannot testify to God’s glory before the assembly of Israel at the temple (cf Ps 51:14).

On the other hand, God is present even in Sheol (139:8, NIV, “the depths”); even the dead in the netherworld are not beyond his power.  It is significant to note that Sheol in the Old Testament refers simply to the habitation of the dead – not specifically to hell, the location for punishment of the wicked dead.

In the New Testament, especially when the reference is citing the Old Testament, Hades refers again either to the grave or to the netherworld of the dead (e.g., Act 2:27, 31), which states that Jesus was not left in Hades; NIV, “the grave”).

In Rev 20:13 Hades is the netherworld, which yields up to the dead God’s Judgment.  Another New Testament term, abyss, can also refer simply to the place of the dead (Rom 10:7, citing the Old Testament; NIV, “the deep”).

But the word usually describes a locale for the imprisoned demonic powers (Lk 8:31; Rev 9:1-2; 20:1).  In classical Greek abyss connotes unfathomable depths, such as the sources of a spring.

Looking down into the Kidron Valley from the base of the southeast corner of the Temple Mount at 2000 year old tombs cut into the west side of the Mount of Olives.

A New Testament term with Jewish roots is Gehenna, named for the Hinnom Valley south of  Jerusalem.  Because child sacrifice was carried out in this valley (2 Kgs 16:3), it was desecrated by King Josiah (2 Kgs 23:10).

Jeremiah 7:32 declared that God would judge Judah there, and thus, during the intertestamental period, the term came to be used for the domain where the wicked would receive eternal punishment. 

Jesus often spoke of Gehenna as a place of fiery punishment (Matt 5:22; 10:28; 18:9, NIV in each case, “hell”).  Also, indicating that Gehenna’s original purpose was as the site of punishment for demons, although wicked humans would also be consigned there (Matt 25:41; NIV, “eternal fire”). 

A similar word, a verb that means “to cast into Tartarus,” appears in 2 Pet 2:4 (NIV, “sent…to hell”) to describe the place where wicked angels are punished.  Tartarus in Greek literature is the deepest part of Hades and a locale of eternal punishment.

We are wise not to make to much of the origins of these words.  Gehenna has little to do with the historical Valley of Hinnom.  Similarly, the Greek words in the New Testament for the apostles imply that the Greek myths were credible.

The word Sheol, we do well to note, is pure Hebrew with no known origin or parallels in any other language.

Psalm 138 – Praise of God for His Salvation

A Psalm of David.

1 I will praise thee with my whole heart: before the gods will I sing praise unto thee.

2 I will worship toward thy holy temple, and praise thy name for thy lovingkindness and for thy truth: for thou hast magnified thy word above all thy name.

3 In the day when I cried thou answeredst me, and strengthenedst me with strength in my soul.

4 All the kings of the earth shall praise thee, O LORD, when they hear the words of thy mouth.

5 Yea, they shall sing in the ways of the LORD: for great is the glory of the LORD.

6 Though the LORD be high, yet hath he respect unto the lowly: but the proud he knoweth afar off.

7 Though I walk in the midst of trouble, thou wilt revive me: thou shalt stretch forth thine hand against the wrath of mine enemies, and thy right hand shall save me.

8 The LORD will perfect that which concerneth me: thy mercy, O LORD, endureth forever: forsake not the works of thine own hands.

God’s special providence over his servants.  Having a heart to praise the Lord for His house, His Word, and His reviving and perfecting work.

Psalm 137 – Reminiscences of the Exile

1 By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, we wept, when we remembered Zion.

2 We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof.

3 For there they that carried us away captive required of us a s
ong; and they that wasted us required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion.

4 How shall we sing the LORD’S song in a strange land?

5 If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning.

6 If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above my chief joy.

7 Remember, O LORD, the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who said, Rase it, rase it, even to the foundation thereof.

8 O daughter of Babylon, who art to be destroyed; happy shall he be, that rewardeth thee as thou hast served us.

9 Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones.

Thanksgiving to God for His benefits.  Knowing and experiencing the difference between Babylon and Jerusalem from the divine point of view.

Psalm 136 – Praise of God’s Eternal Mercy

1 O give thanks unto the LORD; for he is good: for his mercy endureth forever.

2 O give thanks unto the God of gods: for his mercy endureth forever.

3 O give thanks to the Lord of lords: for his mercy endureth forever.

4 To him who alone doeth great wonders: for his mercy endureth forever.

5 To him that by wisdom made the heavens: for his mercy endureth forever.

6 To him that stretched out the earth above the waters: for his mercy endureth forever.

7 To him that made great lights: for his mercy endureth forever:

8 The sun to rule by day: for his mercy endureth forever:

9 The moon and stars to rule by night: for his mercy endureth forever.

10 To him that smote Egypt in their firstborn: for his mercy endureth forever:

11 And brought out Israel from among them: for his mercy endureth forever:

12 With a strong hand, and with a stretched out arm: for his mercy endureth forever.

13 To him which divided the Red sea into parts: for his mercy endureth forever:

14 And made Israel to pass through the midst of it: for his mercy endureth forever:

15 But overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red sea: for his mercy endureth forever.

16 To him which led his people through the wilderness: for his mercy endureth forever.

17 To him which smote great kings: for his mercy endureth forever:

18 And slew famous kings: for his mercy endureth forever:

19 Sihon king of the Amorites: for his mercy endureth forever:

20 And Og the king of Bashan: for his mercy endureth forever:

21 And gave their land for an heritage: for his mercy endureth forever:

22 Even an heritage unto Israel his servant: for his mercy endureth forever.

23 Who remembered us in our low estate: for his mercy endureth forever:

24 And hath redeemed us from our enemies: for his mercy endureth forever.

25 Who giveth food to all flesh: for his mercy endureth forever.

26 O give thanks unto the God of heaven: for his mercy endureth forever.

The lamentation of the people of God in their captivity in Babylon.  Being specific and detailed in our thanks giving with a deep realization of His mercy in our lives.

Psalm 135 – Knowing and Worshipping the True God

1 Praise ye the LORD. Praise ye the name of the LORD; praise him, O ye servants of the LORD.

2 Ye that stand in the house of the LORD, in the courts of the house of our God,

3 Praise the LORD; for the LORD is good: sing praises unto his name; for it is pleasant.

4 For the LORD hath chosen Jacob unto himself, and Israel for his peculiar treasure.

5 For I know that the LORD is great, and that our Lord is above all gods.

6 Whatsoever the LORD pleased, that did he in heaven, and in earth, in the seas, and all deep places.

7 He causeth the vapors to ascend from the ends of the earth; he maketh lightnings for the rain; he bringeth the wind out of his treasuries.

8 Who smote the firstborn of Egypt, both of man and beast.

9Who sent tokens and wonders into the midst of thee, O Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his servants.

10 Who smote great nations, and slew
mighty kings;

11 Sihon king of the Amorites, and Og king of Bashan, and all the kingdoms of Canaan:

12 And gave their land for an heritage, an heritage unto Israel his people.

13 Thy name, O LORD, endureth forever; and thy memorial, O LORD, throughout all generations.

14 For the LORD will Judge his people, and he will repent himself concerning his servants.

15 The idols of the heathen are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands.

16 They have mouths, but they speak not; eyes have they, but they see not;

17 They have ears, but they hear not; neither is there any breath in their mouths.

18 They that make them are like unto them: so is every one that trusteth in them.

19 Bless the LORD, O house of Israel: bless the LORD, O house of Aaron:

20 Bless the LORD, O house of Levi: ye that fear the LORD, bless the LORD.

21 Blessed be the LORD out of Zion, which dwelleth at Jerusalem. Praise ye the LORD.

God is to be praised for His wonderful works.  Appreciating their church the way God appreciates the church as His special treasure.

Psalm 134 – Worship in the Sanctuary & An Akkadian Prayer to the Gods of the Night

A Song of degrees.

Tashmetum is the Akkadian  Goddess of supplication.
She is called upon to listen to prayers and to grant requests.

Her husband, Nabu, is the God of writing and wisdom; where Nabu speaks, Tashmetum listens.

1 Behold, bless ye the LORD, all ye servants of the LORD, which by night stand in the house of the LORD.

Lama is the Sumerian Goddess of intercession and protection.
Also known as Lamassu by the Akkadians, she acted as an intermediary between people and the Gods.

Lama was usually depicted in human form, often appearing on seals introducing a king to a God or Goddess.

In this form, she wore a long tiered robe and sometimes a horned tiara.

As Lamassu, she was more often portrayed as a winged bull or lion with a woman’s face, and served to protect temples and palaces.

Lamassu is often confused with Lamaštu, an Akkadian demon Goddess.

Lama’s name means “protective spirit.”

2 Lift up your hands in the sanctuary, and bless the LORD.

3 The LORD that made heaven and earth bless thee out of Zion.

An exhortation to praise God: the vanity of idols.  Enjoying the  worship in the house of the Lord and flowing out to bless others because of it.

An Akkadian Prayer
to the Gods of the Night
 

There are several short Akkadian liturgies known as Prayers to the Gods of the Night.  These poems, which are prayers to the celestial stars, were recited at night.  One example describes the silence of the city when doors were bolted, the palace was quiet and the people were asleep.

Even the major deities (e.g., the sun god) had retreated into the lap of heaven, meaning that they were not visible at that time.  The petitioner addressed the night gods, represented by the various constellations, asking for a favorable omen.  He then performed a ritual of extispicy (seeking an answer to his inquiry through an interpretation of the form of the animal organs). 

It may be that Psalm 134 is also an evening liturgy, but it is vastly different from the Akkadian poems.  Psalm 134 may be a dialogue of praise sung between Yahweh’s worshippers as they left the temple in the evening and the Levites who would guard it by night. 

Tiamat is the Babylonian Goddess of the primeval saltwater sea.
In the beginning there was only Tiamat and Apsu, God of the freshwater.

Tiamat surrounded Apsu, and their waters mingled to produce Lahmu and Lahamu, who in turn produced Anshar and Kishar.

Anshar and Kishar mated to produce the God Anu, who was the father of the Gods Enlil and Ea (known as Enki in Sumerian).

The worshipers exhorted the Levities to continue to praise the Lord throughout the night, while the Levites in turn pronounced a benediction upon the congregants.  

Yahweh doesn’t cease to work simply because it is nighttime; indeed, the Protector of Israel neither slumbers nor sleeps (121:4).  

The Israelites were not to worship the heavenly bodies as the surrounding nations did, for they are not divine beings but simply part of God’s creation that also glorify him (Gen 1:14-18; Ps 8:3; 136:7-9; 148:3).  Worship of the Lord is to continue uninterrupted by day and night. 

 

Psalm 133 – Blessing of Brotherly Fellowship

A Song of degrees of David.

1 Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!

It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron’s beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments;

3 As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the LORD commanded the blessing, even life for evermore.

An exhortation to praise God continually.  Experiencing life and blessing when we practically stand together in oneness.

Psalm 132 – Habitation of Jehovah in Zion & Historians in the Ancient World

A Song of degrees.

1 LORD, remember David, and all his afflictions:

2 How he sware unto the LORD, and vowed unto the mighty God of Jacob;

3 Surely I will not come into the tabernacle of my house, nor go up into my bed;

4 I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine eyelids,

5 Until I find out a place for the LORD, an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob.

6 Lo, we heard of it at Ephratah: we found it in the fields of the wood.

7 We will go into his tabernacles: we will worship at his footstool.

8 Arise, O LORD, into thy rest; thou, and the ark of thy strength.

9 Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness; and let thy saints shout for joy.

10 For thy servant David’s sake turn not away the face of thine anointed.

11 The LORD hath sworn in truth unto David; he will not turn from it; Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne.

12 If thy children will keep my covenant and my testimony that I shall teach them, their children shall also sit upon thy throne for evermore.

13 For the LORD hath chosen Zion; he hath desired it for his habitation.

14 This is my rest forever: here will I dwell; for I have desired it.

15 I will abundantly bless her provision: I will satisfy her poor with bread.

16 I will also clothe her priests with salvation: and her saints shall shout aloud for joy.

17 There will I make the horn of David to bud: I have ordained a lamp for mine anointed.

18 His enemies will I clothe with shame: but upon himself shall his crown flourish.

The happiness of brotherly love and concord.  Living a life to experience Christ specifically for the church as God’s chosen and desired dwelling place.

Historians in the Ancient World 

The poet of Psalm 132 looked back to the covenant with David and to the history of the ark of the covenant as the basis for his prayer – a reflection that the Bible is rooted in history, not theology divorced from human events and cultures.

The works of ancient historians, because they provide context, are of great value in Biblical studies.  Important historians include:

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (c 484-425 B.C.):
His great work is called the Historia (“investigation”).

An account of the wars between the Greeks and Persians, his work includes other stories as well, including an interesting, if not fully credible, account of ancient Egyptian culture.

 

Thucydides (c 460-400 B.C.):
Perhaps the greatest ancient historian, this Greek general wrote a lucid and gripping account of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) between the Athenians and the Spartan alliance.

His work, which models scrupulous research and careful writing, has survived intact but ends abruptly.

Manetho:
Manetho, an Egyptian priest who lived during the reign of Ptolemy (305-282 B.C.), compiled a history of Egypt.  Unfortunately, his work has survived only in fragments, as quoted by other ancient writers (e.g., Josephus and Eusebius).  His division of Egyptian into 30 dynasties is still followed.

 

Berosus: The first true historian of the Mesopotamian region was this Babylonian priest.  In about 290 B.C. he authored three books in Greek on Babylonian history.

Berosus’s history also survives only in pieces, as cited by Josephus and Eusebius.  His original work covered the history of the region from the mythological past to the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians.

 

Demetrius the Chronographer (3rd century B.C.):
Demetrius, a Jewish historian, recorded the history of his people, focusing on Biblical Israel background and to resolve exegetical difficulties.  His work too survives only in fragments.

 

 

 

 

Flavius Josephus (c A.D. 37-100):
Josephus was the most famous Jewish historian (this is the same one mentioned above).  His History of the Jewish War, describing the A.D. 66-70 war between Judea and Rome, ranks with Thucydides’ history works.

Josephus, of a priestly background (a Pharisee), began the war as a combatant for the losing side.  He also wrote chronology of the Jewish people from earliest times to nearly A.D. 100 (Antiquities of the Jews). 

Josephus used the Septuagint as his primary source for the Biblical period but was also influenced by Hellenistic culture.  He is our chief source of information regarding Herod the Great, and he referred to John the Baptist, Jesus, and James, the brother of Jesus.

Polybius (c 200-118 B.C.):
Although a Greek, Polybius was the greatest historian of early Rome.  His history is a major source for the study of the Punic Wars (Rome vs. Carthage).

 

 

Publius Cornelius Tacitus (c A.D. 56-120):
Tacitus was the primary historian of the Roman Empire.  His Histories and Annals focus on the imperial history of the 1st century A.D.

 

 

Dio Cassius (died c A.D. 229):
His work described the history of Rome from it’s founding to the time of Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235).  Unfortunately, much of it has been lost.

 

Suetonius (c A.D. 69-112):
Suetonius (The Lives of the Caesars) wrote a biography of the early Roman emperors.

 

 

 

Plutarch (c A.D. 46-119):
Another biographer, he authored the Parallel Lives of Famous Greeks and Romans, a valuable resource for Greek and Roman history.

 

Psalm 131 – Rest and Satisfaction

A Song of degrees of David.

1 LORD, my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty: neither do I exercise myself in great matters, or in things too high for me.

2 Surely I have behaved and quieted myself, as a child that is weaned of his mother: my soul is even as a weaned child.

3 Let Israel hope in the LORD from henceforth and forever.

A prayer for the fulfilling of the promise made to David.  Having our soul dealt with by the Lord in the realm of pride and ambition.